Posts tagged “Arborvitae

Detailed Wiring of Big Eastern White Cedar Complete

Previous posts about this tree:

http://lakeshorebonsai.com/?p=2331

http://lakeshorebonsai.com/?p=2172

It is looking very sparse right now due to the removal of old foliage and unnecessary branches, but hopefully it will fill in before the end of this growing season. Its current sparseness gives an opportunity to see the strange relationship between the two trunks. As the foliage fills in, the pads and the spaces between them will become more well defined.

This tree is big, about 65 cm tall from the lip of the pot, and weighs about 100 lbs.

This tree is big, about 65 cm tall from the lip of the pot, and weighs about 75 lbs. The two top jins are of equal height – a problem which I will address the next time I work on the tree.

This is a photoshop adjusted picture showing how I would like to reduce the top jin on the right, and bend the on on the left to emphasize movement to the right.

This is a photoshop adjusted picture showing how I would like to reduce the top jin on the right, and bend the jin on the left so that it better matches the overall movement of the tree.

Rights side

Right side. I’ve always struggled with the flatness of the main trunk, but yamadori always have their faults.

Back

Back

Left side

Left side


First Styling of Small Thuja

This is one of my smallest eastern white cedars, collected in the spring of 2012. It took longer than it should have to reach peak health following collection because quite a bit of mucky field soil remained in the root ball until spring 2014 when it was completely bare rooted. This year it was healthy enough for a rough initial styling. Next year it will be planted in a new pot at the correct angle and the deadwood will be cleaned. It could be show ready by fall 2016.

One year after collection, still in an untouched state.

One year after collection, still in an untouched state.

Healthy and ready for work.

Healthy and ready for work.

After recent work.

After recent work. Growing a new apex is the priority for the rest of this season. This tree has some excellent deadwood which is still obscured under dirt and dead bark. 


Thuja occidentalis Foliage Shedding

This is peak season for eastern white cedar foliage shedding. While not at all a health concern, it is somewhat unsightly and can leave your tree looking quite sparse.

To reduce autumn foliage shedding, I’ve been following the advice of Reiner Goebel and making sure I prune my cedars some time around mid-August. This year the results are really showing. Bear in mind that if a tree is early in it’s development or recently collected, it is often better to avoid pruning and just let it shed.

DSC_0402

Pruned August 21st.

Pruned August 15th

Pruned August 15th

Pruned August 20th

Pruned August 20th

Not pruned

Not pruned

Not pruned

Not pruned

Not pruned

Not pruned


Thuja occidentalis progression

This is the first large Eastern White Cedar I collected. After four years of growing, the foliage mass was finally ready for some real work and this year it has gotten a lot of attention. In July it was thinned and roughly wired, and today it received its second and final thinning for the year.

I think this tree is actually two separate trees that have been growing together for a long time. The second trunk on the right is growing towards the back, and I’ve always toyed with the idea of removing it since it seems out of place. David Easterbrook and Marco Invernizzi both advised me not to remove it, and now I am starting to understand why.  That secondary trunk provides much of the depth of the tree and without it I would be left with something very two-dimensional.

It will be difficult to find a traditional bonsai container that works for this tree. I’ve got some ideas for the future planting, but it will not be easy to pull off. The final planting will determine which of the large jins I end up keeping, if any. If I can sort it out next spring, this tree might be ready to be shown in Fall 2015.

DSCN2091

As collected Fall 2010. Note the fist-sized rock lodged in the base of the trunk which had to be cut out with a die grinder.

Late summer 2011 after removing a major foliage mass from the upper left of the tree.

Late summer 2011 after removing a major foliage mass from the upper left of the tree.

Summer 2012, completed barerooted and repotted into a much smaller grow box.

Summer 2012, completely barerooted to remove the toxic muck and repotted into a much smaller grow box.

Summer 2013. Some major pruning and coarse wiring was done this year to open up the foliage and set the basic structure of the secondary branches.

Summer 2013. Some major pruning and coarse wiring was done this year to open up the foliage and set the basic structure of the secondary branches.

July 2014 after thinning and re-wiring.

July 2014 after thinning and re-wiring.

Today after another round of thinning and minor adjustments. There is still a fair amount of floppy foliage but that is gradually being replaced with tighter growth or removed entirely.

Today after another round of thinning and minor adjustments. There is still a fair amount of floppy foliage but that is gradually being replaced with tighter growth or removed entirely.

Future planting angle?

Future planting angle?

 

 


Thuja occidentalis Initial Cleaning

This large Thuja was collected in Spring 2013 and this year has been growing well enough that I have started some basic work. In the first year of collection, I try to do absolutely nothing to a tree – not even move it around the yard. Cleaning work like this invariably involves bumps and vibrations, so I don’t do it until the tree is obviously strong and established in the grow box – typically the second year.

This is not a thorough cleaning – just the removal of bark that come off easily, getting piles of detritus out of cracks and crevices, and cleaning the deadwood with water and a toothbrush to get rid of algae. After this it is easier to study the tree and identify the path of the live veins. As the live veins swell up over the next few years, they will be defined further.

The thin dead bark that is really stubbornly adhered to the deadwood will gradually be picked at over the next few years. Removing it right now would require aggressive scraping or rotary brushes that would ruin the natural texture of the ancient wood. I’m estimating this tree won’t be show ready for around ten years, so there is no point in rushing things. Cycles of wet-dry-freeze-thaw will aid the gentle removal of the bark.

Next spring it will be bare rooted and repotted into a much smaller pot or box. Like most collected Thuja, designing this tree will be a serious challenge. Semi cascade seems like the obvious direction but close examination reveals that there is no easy solution.

Before cleaning, likely front.

Before cleaning, likely front.

Before cleaning, likely back.

Before cleaning, likely back.

Before cleaning.

Before cleaning.

After cleaning, likely front.

After cleaning, likely front.

After cleaning, likely back.

After cleaning, likely back.

The thin layers of dead bark are the hardest to remove. Since there is no rush, I will pick at it bit by bit over the coming years. Cycles of wet-dry-freeze-thaw will aid the gentle removal of the bark.

The thin layers of dead bark are the hardest to remove.


The Feels of Bonsai

According to Ryan Neil (see this video starting around 26 minutes, courtesy of the most excellent and prolific Bonsai Eejit), the overall feeling of a bonsai is determined by the combined directions of the trunk, main branch, and apex.

Three common scenarios are:

  1. Trunk, main branch, and apex all move in the same direction. This creates a calm, feminine bonsai.
  2. Trunk goes one way, but the apex and main branch go in the opposite direction. This creates tension.
  3. Trunk and apex the same way, but the main branch goes in the opposite direction. This creates dynamism and is rarely seen in Japanese bonsai.

Of course there are other scenarios such as the trunk and main branch going the same way while the apex goes off in the opposite direction. My guess would be that this creates imbalance thus it is difficult to design an attractive bonsai with this layout.

Ryan’s comments really stuck with me when I first saw this video. This is a simplified but useful approach to bonsai design. Of course, there are exceptions to the above scenarios just as there are exceptions to everything in bonsai.

When I was doing the initial wiring on this Thuja this weekend, I was aiming to create scenario #2 – Tension. Two trunks which strongly move to the left and apices/branches which strongly move to the right. This made a fun and compact design.

As a side note, my initial plan for this tree was to have everything moving to the left… trunks, branches, apices. It seemed like the most logical design. However, doing this would cover up the best feature of this tree – the two “kinks” in the trunks that boast some very nice deadwood.  The current design makes it possible to emphasize those kinks and, importantly, makes a more compact tree.

">DSC_0189DSC_5823


Devilishly Sinuous Twin-Trunk Thuja

Trunk lines like this are what keep me trekking into the wild each year to scour for nature’s freaks. This tree was collected Spring 2013 and is gaining strength quickly. I am excited to do the initial work this summer.


Grafting Hinoki on Thuja: Round 3

In Spring 2012, I tried bud grafting hinoki foliage on a scraggly collected Thuja, which failed. Later that year, I tried approach grafting hinoki foliage onto the same plant. Over one year later, the results are still unclear. The approach graft is alive and well, but it has not clearly fused with the Thuja tissue. I have a feeling the wounds on scion/stock both just healed over instead of grafting with one another. At this point I would say the approach graft was not successful.

Not convinced that this approach graft has taken.

Not convinced that this approach graft has taken.

Nevertheless, I left the approach graft in place and moved on with my third attempt of grafting this plant with a third type of graft: the One-Point aka Single-Point Graft.

One-point grafts are very similar to thread grafts, except defoliation is not required. This makes this type of graft a very useful tool for conifers. Many years ago, I successfully one-point grafted my Canadian Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) after learning about this type of graft from Nick Lenz’s Bonsai from the Wild 2nd Ed. In fact, Nick hints at one-point grafts as being appropriate for Hinoki-Thuja operations, but first describes them in his larch chapter:

A variant of [thread grafting] is the one point graft. Instead of passing a bald branch through a hole in the trunk, you fold over a branch and squeeze it into the hole. Before insertion, you scrape the outer edge of the fold with a thumb nail to remove the cambium. When jammed into the hole, the cambium layers of the drill-out and of the scraping will touch and merge quickly. This approach has several advantages. You can perform it at any time during the growing season as the branch does not need to be bald. This is especially useful in species that grow out but once in a season, such as pines. It also takes less time to complete. You do not have to drill all the way through the trunk, but only a centimeter or less.

The disadvantage to this approach is not great. The branch may be fatally injured when folded over. If this happens and the new graft begins to dry and brown up, you can readily pull it out and try again with a smaller branch. Despite the tendency of a branch to break (crack) when doubled over, you can always find one that will tolerate the procedure. Success is more likely on hot, dry days when water is withdrawn from the wood. -Bonsai from the Wild 2nd Ed., p. 33

A few weeks ago in mid August I looked disgustingly at my still-ungrafted Thuja and grabbed my drill. Three one-point grafts were initiated and today they all still seem to be alive. Basically what I have now are three thread grafts in my Thuja, and hopefully now it is just a waiting game.

A one-point graft that seems to have survived the initial folding-and-cramming.

A one-point graft that seems to have survived the initial folding-and-cramming. The scion for this graft was growing off the scion used for last year’s approach graft.

Another one closer to the base of the trunk.

Another one closer to the base of the trunk. All of the one points were slathered with some Japanese wound sealant which is pretty much white glue.

I'm not sure if this tree is even worth all the trouble. Sure, it will be nice if I can make it a bonsai, but this grafting project now seems more about me proving to myself that it can be done.

I’m not sure if this tree is even worth all the trouble. Sure, it will be nice if I can make it a bonsai, but this grafting project now seems more about me proving to myself that it can actually be done.

 


A Big Thuja That Was Collected This Spring

This large Thuja occidentalis was captured in April of this year. All of the pictures except the last one were taken in April soon after collection, when the tree was still in it’s dull winter colour.

The trunk is huge with some dramatic movement. The deadwood also tells some fascinating stories, particularly the massive break in the 8″ diameter middle section. One has to wonder how damage like this could be done without completely uprooting the tree.

This tree certainly doesn’t present any easy design solutions, so it will be a  challenge. Currently these are the best pictures I have of the tree as it is tucked away in the rehab area.

Hard tree to photograph as the base is covered by some branches.

Hard tree to photograph as the base is covered by some branches.

I've been planting all of my larger collected trees in pure perlite for the last couple of years.

I’ve been planting all of my larger collected trees in pure screened perlite for the last couple of years.

 

Before root washing and potting up, giving a glimpse into the massive base. This is a good example of the impenetrable root mass that Thujas are often collected with. Hosing out as much muck as possible greatly simplifies watering the containerized tree.

Before root washing and potting up, giving a glimpse into the base of the tree. This is a good example of the impenetrable root mass that Thujas are often collected with. Very little of it is actually live root. Hosing out as much muck as possible greatly simplifies watering the containerized tree.

Some details:

A more recent picture of the tree. It has been under shade cloth the entire year.

A more recent picture of the tree. It has been under shade cloth the entire year.


Sandblasting Thuja Deadwood

For years sandblasting has been used in some bonsai circles to clean up deadwood. The idea is that it will remove fuzz from carving, smooth “new” sharp edges created from carving, and strip away old dead bark while preserving the natural texture of the wood.I’ve always wanted to try it on Thuja since they have so many intricate little details which are often covered by old caked on dead bark that is extremely difficult to remove. The alternative is that you pick away at the dead bark with your fingernail or a variety of pointy tools, ideally after rain since the bark is soft. Still, it can be very difficult to get everything and not destroy the little details.

My friend has a sandblaster with a small cabinet so I thought this little guy might be my first test subject.

I've already spent lots of time picking and scraping at the dead bark on this one, but there is still a film of stubborn bark here and there, and the tiny jins on the character spire I am finding impossible to clean without breaking.

I’ve already spent lots of time picking and scraping at the dead bark on this one, but there is still a film of stubborn bark here and there, and the tiny jins on the character spire I am finding impossible to clean without breaking.

Sandblasting works best on junipers or “driftwood species” like Thuja which have a defined live vein that has been cleaned of bark. To prepare the plant for blasting, use a tacky clay like Plasticine to cover the live vein from the soil line to as far up the primary branching you can get. Protect the foliage and pot as best you can. I used aluminum foil and shrink wrap. A cloth and shrink wrap would have worked just as well. This step is MUCH easier if the tree has no wire on it (I learned that the hard way).

The sandblasting was done with a standard glass bead abrasive. I found 70 psi to be pretty ideal.

The sandblasting was done with a standard glass bead abrasive. I found 70 psi to be pretty ideal.

I was very impressed with the results. I kind of expected the small jins to be blasted off, but they were left completely intact and clean as a whistle! Some people might be concerned that the natural silver patina of the deadwood has been lost. Well, if you use lime sulfur that shouldn’t matter to you. Furthermore, I find it takes two years in my yard for this silver colouration to return. In bonsai terms that isn’t really long. Is this a technique I will start using more regularly? While I still need to spend some time closely examining the results, it seems very likely.

After sandblasting.

After sandblasting.

DSC_0623


It’s Time to Prune Your Eastern White Cedars

Rather than try and tell you how it is, I will instead quote Toronto bonsai veteran Reiner Goebel, who has several decades more experience with Thuja occidentalis than I do.

“As all trees, cedars shed old foliage in fall. Some time in September, part of the foliage, usually in the interior of the tree, will turn rusty brown and slowly fall off. If you’re not sure whether your tree is shedding or dying, pulling at the brown foliage is a reliable test, because the foliage about to be shed comes off easily, while the foliage about to die requires a lot of force to come off. I believe to have noticed that this natural shedding can be reduced by timing one of the heavy pruning sessions to occur around the middle of August.” -from Reiner’s article about Eastern White Cedar at RGBonsai.com

One of my bonsai teachers also puts it well: “Decide which foliage the cedar will lose, or it will decide for you”.

As Reiner says, it is usually the older interior foliage which is shed – yet this is probably the foliage you want to keep. So pruning generally involves shortening the strong fronds at the tips of branches and those strong ones jutting off the sides. Strong “runner shoots” that often appear sticking straight up at the crotches of branches should also be removed.

This is especially important on collected cedars that are early in their training, since interior foliage is usually sparse and weak (if it exists at all). Late summer cutting helps the tree hang on to that stuff so it has a better chance of gaining interior strength the next year.

This tree serves as an example, a small Thuja collected in Spring 2012. It has been slow to find its legs and is still not at full throttle, but this pruning is necessary to maintain the precious interior growth. Last year it was not pruned at all. Only Thuja that show exceptional growth following spring collection should be summer pruned during their first year of captivity.

Before pruning:

 

After pruning:

In the first few years post-collection, August pruning may be the only cutting that a Thuja will get, while the rest of the year is spent developing a foliage mass. Healthy cedars, like junipers, grow all year and require several pruning sessions.


New Tree: Thuja occidentalis #16

When I saw this tree at the TBS show and sale I was amazed (and somewhat frustrated) that it hadn’t been bought yet. What does it say about the state of bonsai in the GTA when people aren’t fighting over a tree like this, especially when the owner was practically giving it away? I walked away, came back an hour or so later, and the tree was still there. So I had to step up and buy the damned thing 🙂

This tree is awesome material for many reasons. It is collected so it has character. The movement and branch placement is practically textbook perfect for an informal upright. It is planted in the correct position in a good pot and, perhaps most importantly, the previous owner knew exactly how to maintain Thuja foliage, so it had an abundance of fine twigs which could be used to build foliage pads.

In short, all the hard work was already done by the previous owner over the last 7+ years. I just had to put some wire on it and make it look pretty!

The work involved thinning the foliage and simplifying the branching, wiring everything, focusing the movement of the tree to the right, and shortening the apex. The deadwood was also cleaned and bleached.

Before work

Before work

DSC_0425

Final image

 

The back of the tree is awesome. I would like to try to make this the front one day, but it won't be easy. For now I will enjoy the current front.

The back of the tree is awesome. I would like to try to make this the front one day, but it won’t be easy. For now I will enjoy the current front.


Thuja occidentalis #9

This little thuja was put into a nice Shibakatsu pot last week. This is one of my favorite pots and it suits the tree better than I expected. The major work on this tree is now done – both above and below ground. Now it is just a matter of pruning and pinching to develop the foliage pads. As I refine the foliage, I will slowly scrape the dead bark of the old top jin while trying to maintain the detail of the deadwood. This will be a slow process.

May 2013

May 2013

Summer 2012

Summer 2012

 

Spring 2011 as collected.

Spring 2011 as collected.

 


Messing Around With a Small Cedar

This little thuja (~30cm to top of jin) was collected in spring 2011. It’s not exactly a jaw-dropper, but it has some nice movement, natural jins and it reminds me of the big old thuja I see with dead tops.

Preserving the old flaky bark while extending the deadwood was difficult, and some was inevitably lost. Some was actually intentionally removed as it was giving an illusion of inverse taper.

This tree probably won’t be touched for the rest of the year except for some light trimming if the foliage bounces back strongly.


Big Thuja Update

This big Thuja was collected in Fall 2010 and had its first serious root work just over a month ago. It is growing very nicely now, and I moved it into full sun the other day.

As soon as possible this tree will need some major thinning to prevent weakening of the interior growth. Probably 50% of the foliage will need to be thinned. However, before that I decided to cut back some useless branches at the top of the secondary trunk.

This tree actually seems to be two trees/trunks growing together. The main deadwood trunk, and an apparently younger but still interesting trunk behind it. They could work together for a final design, but I think I would prefer the simplicity of the main trunk alone. However, I need to be sure that I can kill off/separate the second trunk without harming the living part of the nicer one. And I am still not 100% convinced as I saw some root fusion when I repotted it last month. The entire deadwood trunk only has one live vein.

Here is the tree as collected in October 2010.


Repotting my largest Thuja

Its not so much the tree that is huge, but rather the ‘coffin’ that it is planted in. When it is a bonsai, it will be an easy one-person tree… but its still my biggest Thuja (actually, I think its my biggest tree period).

I collected this in the fall of 2010 and did not want to disturb the huge flat root system, so I just built a box around it. It took two people to lift it, but the main issue is that I was stupid enough to build it out of plywood so it was starting to fall apart after a few months.

The purpose of this repotting was simply to put it in a more sturdy box that is about 1/3rd the size, and to wash some of the mucky soil away from the inner rootball.

 

 


Thuja occidentalis Slab Planting

The other day I planted this Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis) on a slab I picked up from Aichi-en in Nagoya, Japan. I believe the slab is made of concrete, although the artist did a very good job of giving it a natural form and texture.

I had the help of a friend who has much more experience planting trees on slabs than I do. I was expecting to have to make a retaining wall out of muck like Bjorn does for a white pine in this excellent video, but I learned that this step is completely unnecessary with healthy Thuja because of its incredibly dense root characteristics.

Unfortunately I didn’t get many pictures of the process because I was busy working on the tree 🙂 However, the key points to planting Thuja on a slab are as follows:

  • The material should be well established and have a dense, fibrous rootball. Most Thuja can produce this in two years of growth in a coarse bonsai soil such as a lava rock or pumice based mix.
  • Do not disturb the rootball any more than is necessary. In other words, don’t rake the whole thing out. This will weaken the structure of the rooball and will make it difficult to keep it intact once planted on the shallow stone.
  • Remove thick, downward growing roots.Thuja collected from rocky areas typically have few of these, as was the case with this tree. Once the rootball is shallow enough, leave it alone.
  • Trim long, thick roots that extend beyond the desired perimeter of the rootball. Excessively long fibrous roots can be tucked underneath the rootmass once it is placed on the stone.
  • Tie it in tight. Drill more holes if necessary.
  • Work in soil where necessary, If the rootball is dense and was undisturbed, relatively little soil will need to be worked in near the trunk.

"Before" (this is actually a picture from last summer).

The rootball tied into the stone. I'm guessing only about 25% of the rootmass was removed for this planting.

The result. I am happy with the stone and the more upright planting angle. This is actually closer to how it was growing in the ground. This tree still has a lot of development ahead of it, so there is no point in adding moss. No top pruning was done. The tree just looks thinner because it shed its foliage last fall, after the first picture was taken.


Grafting Hinoki on Thuja (Arborvitae) Part 2

See here for Part 1.

My Thuja are starting to lose their winter colour, so I figured now was as good a time as any to make my first attempt at grafting hinoki foliage to this old bare tree.

Ready for grafting.

Ready for grafting.

The type of graft I attempted was a type of side veneer graft, as shown in the image below.

Side veneer graft.

Approximate size of the scions used. Hopefully they aren't too big? I chose the size based on images I've seen of people doing the same type of grafting on juniper.

Approximate size of the scions used. Hopefully they aren’t too big? I chose the size based on images I’ve seen of people doing the same type of grafting on juniper.

 

A (very tight) elastic band was used to initially secure the scion to the rootstock. This is a nice trick I learned at a recent grafting workshop. It allows you to still "tweak" the position of the scion after it is secured to the tree, to ensure that the cambium is aligned properly. There are special UV resistant elastics designed for this job, but I just used old kitchen elastics. A tight layer of teflon tape went over the elastic to protect the wound.

A (very tight) elastic band was used to initially secure the scion to the rootstock. This is a nice trick I learned at a recent grafting workshop. It allows you to still “tweak” the position of the scion after it is secured to the tree, to ensure that the cambium is aligned properly. There are special UV resistant elastics designed for this job, but I just used old kitchen elastics. A tight layer of teflon tape went over the elastic to protect the wound.

Three grafts in total were attempted. One was covered in a clear plastic bag. For another, the scion was wrapped in parafilm (which apparently breaks down quickly enough that the scion can actually grow right out of it). The last one was left unprotected. Professional propagators don’t wrap their scions in anything, but they also have fancy greenhouses to control their environment. We’ll see what happens.

To be honest, I am not feeling very confident about these grafts. I did the best I could, but I feel that I am at a big disadvantage without having a greenhouse. But nothing ventured, nothing gained – right? If these fail, I will try approach grafting and possibly some more side veneer grafting in the late spring.

Fingers crossed!


Cedar (Thuja) Leafminer Damage

Thuja occidentalis (Arborvitae) is incredibly disease resistant, and there are only a handful of pests that are of any concern to the bonsai grower. One of those pests is the larvae of a tiny moth called the cedar leaf tip miner.

The following excerpt is taken from a University of Guelph Pest Diagnostic Clinic Factsheet on Thuja occidentalis:

Cedar leafminers are tiny moths native to Canada. Damage is caused by the small larvae feeding within the scale-like leaves of cedar. An infestation is usually first noticed in the spring when the tips of some branches begin to bleach and brown. Heavy infestations can cause severe thinning of the foliage.

The article goes on to say that the disease is not a major concern but, for bonsai growers, it can be aesthetically displeasing and can also weaken the tree if left untreated.

The tree below was collected in late April 2011. I suspect that its recovery left its defenses down, and by August the leafminer had established itself.

Cedar Leafminer Damage on a small (25 cm) Thuja occidentalis. The damage is minor, but enough to have affected the recovery of this recently collected tree.

Treatment of leafminer is relatively simple. Prune away the damaged foliage, and keep the tree in full sun to promote the recovery of the plant’s defenses. A light application of a systemic insecticide such as imidacloprid will seal the deal.

As a preventative measure, Reiner Goebel recommends treating Thuja with a systemic in the spring to avoid unexpected infestations of leafminer.

One month later, the tree is sparse, but happy. The tree should be much stronger through 2012, and I doubt the leaf miners will return. It may even be ready for its first wiring by the summer. Had it not been for the leaf miner, the tree probably could have been wired this spring.


Growth Rate of Stressed Thuja occidentalis

This is not a rule, but you can see that Thuja in some stressed conditions (especially drought, poor soil, and crushing ice) grow as little as 2 radial centimeters every 40-50 years. This promotes the development of great bark and deadwood character in small trees. Good junipers cannot be collected in my part of Canada, but Thuja has much of the drama that is so desireable in Juniper bonsai, combined with a unique ruggedness.

The picture of the rings is from where the old top of this tree was cut back after collecting (not a dead tree 🙂 ). This tree was sold last year.

Old Thuja bark