Yamadori

Potentilla fruticosa

This Potentilla is as fragile as a stained glass window and parts of it literally crumble away every time I work on it. It has undergone some pretty radical changes since I acquired it in 2011, and certainly does not look like the tree I initially envisioned it would become when I bought it. If I could give one piece of advice to anyone who wants to work with Potentilla – especially a deadwood specimen – I would say keep the trunk as clean and dry as possible. They are extremely susceptible to rot. Brush it, lime sulfur it, treat it with wood hardener, remove dead bark… all that good stuff is essential. 

The main things I did this year were to remove the last of the rotting parts, soak every piece of deadwood in lime sulfur then wood hardener, and compact the crown. I also completely redesigned the branch structure such that it is much more simple and “bonsai like”. This is contrary to the wayward, random nature in which Potentilla grow. I’m not saying the current image is better than some of the earlier ones. Certainly some incredible deadwood features have been lost.

Next step is to find the right pot, which certainly won’t be easy. I figure this tree still has a couple years of life before it returns to the dust from whence it came.

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The crown still needs a bit of filling out, but that won’t take long.

Earliest

This is the earliest image I have of the tree. I have no idea of the dates, but presumably the top left shows the tree soon after collection, while the other is the pinnacle of the tree’s development under its previous owner.

 


Sandblasting Thuja Deadwood

For years sandblasting has been used in some bonsai circles to clean up deadwood. The idea is that it will remove fuzz from carving, smooth “new” sharp edges created from carving, and strip away old dead bark while preserving the natural texture of the wood.I’ve always wanted to try it on Thuja since they have so many intricate little details which are often covered by old caked on dead bark that is extremely difficult to remove. The alternative is that you pick away at the dead bark with your fingernail or a variety of pointy tools, ideally after rain since the bark is soft. Still, it can be very difficult to get everything and not destroy the little details.

My friend has a sandblaster with a small cabinet so I thought this little guy might be my first test subject.

I've already spent lots of time picking and scraping at the dead bark on this one, but there is still a film of stubborn bark here and there, and the tiny jins on the character spire I am finding impossible to clean without breaking.

I’ve already spent lots of time picking and scraping at the dead bark on this one, but there is still a film of stubborn bark here and there, and the tiny jins on the character spire I am finding impossible to clean without breaking.

Sandblasting works best on junipers or “driftwood species” like Thuja which have a defined live vein that has been cleaned of bark. To prepare the plant for blasting, use a tacky clay like Plasticine to cover the live vein from the soil line to as far up the primary branching you can get. Protect the foliage and pot as best you can. I used aluminum foil and shrink wrap. A cloth and shrink wrap would have worked just as well. This step is MUCH easier if the tree has no wire on it (I learned that the hard way).

The sandblasting was done with a standard glass bead abrasive. I found 70 psi to be pretty ideal.

The sandblasting was done with a standard glass bead abrasive. I found 70 psi to be pretty ideal.

I was very impressed with the results. I kind of expected the small jins to be blasted off, but they were left completely intact and clean as a whistle! Some people might be concerned that the natural silver patina of the deadwood has been lost. Well, if you use lime sulfur that shouldn’t matter to you. Furthermore, I find it takes two years in my yard for this silver colouration to return. In bonsai terms that isn’t really long. Is this a technique I will start using more regularly? While I still need to spend some time closely examining the results, it seems very likely.

After sandblasting.

After sandblasting.

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It’s Time to Prune Your Eastern White Cedars

Rather than try and tell you how it is, I will instead quote Toronto bonsai veteran Reiner Goebel, who has several decades more experience with Thuja occidentalis than I do.

“As all trees, cedars shed old foliage in fall. Some time in September, part of the foliage, usually in the interior of the tree, will turn rusty brown and slowly fall off. If you’re not sure whether your tree is shedding or dying, pulling at the brown foliage is a reliable test, because the foliage about to be shed comes off easily, while the foliage about to die requires a lot of force to come off. I believe to have noticed that this natural shedding can be reduced by timing one of the heavy pruning sessions to occur around the middle of August.” -from Reiner’s article about Eastern White Cedar at RGBonsai.com

One of my bonsai teachers also puts it well: “Decide which foliage the cedar will lose, or it will decide for you”.

As Reiner says, it is usually the older interior foliage which is shed – yet this is probably the foliage you want to keep. So pruning generally involves shortening the strong fronds at the tips of branches and those strong ones jutting off the sides. Strong “runner shoots” that often appear sticking straight up at the crotches of branches should also be removed.

This is especially important on collected cedars that are early in their training, since interior foliage is usually sparse and weak (if it exists at all). Late summer cutting helps the tree hang on to that stuff so it has a better chance of gaining interior strength the next year.

This tree serves as an example, a small Thuja collected in Spring 2012. It has been slow to find its legs and is still not at full throttle, but this pruning is necessary to maintain the precious interior growth. Last year it was not pruned at all. Only Thuja that show exceptional growth following spring collection should be summer pruned during their first year of captivity.

Before pruning:

 

After pruning:

In the first few years post-collection, August pruning may be the only cutting that a Thuja will get, while the rest of the year is spent developing a foliage mass. Healthy cedars, like junipers, grow all year and require several pruning sessions.


Rocky Mountain Juniper Cleanup

This RMJ was collected spring 2012 in the Canadian Rockies. While it has been growing very well, it probably won’t be ready for styling work until next year.

In the meantime, I cleaned the tree up, removing dead bark and highlighting the live vein. Probably the most frustrating task is removing old dead bark that is fused to the deadwood. I have found two tools to be particularly useful for this. Use as sparingly as possible to minimize toolmarks.

After several hours of work, the tree is nice and tidy, and ready for further examination. It has some outstanding features, but some challenges as well (as with all yamadori). One of the main challenges will be how to approach the three “trunks” that emerge. Should drastic measures be taken to hide their awkwardness? Or should they be highlighted as a feature which makes this tree unique?

One problem was identified as I was studying the live vein. When the tree was collected, a relatively large branch (thumb thickness) was cut at the top of the tree. The corresponding live vein (which is lovely and could be a focal point of the design) is weakening. I am expecting the live vein to thin out significantly, but I hope it doesn’t die back completely. It will probably take a few years to know the result.

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Significant Bonsai Collection for Sale

A friend of mine is selling his larger bonsai, many of which are native collected trees that have been in training for decades.

Please note that these are not my trees, and I am unable to answer questions about pricing/size/ etc. For more information, drop me an email and I will put you in contact with the owner.

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New Tree: Thuja occidentalis #16

When I saw this tree at the TBS show and sale I was amazed (and somewhat frustrated) that it hadn’t been bought yet. What does it say about the state of bonsai in the GTA when people aren’t fighting over a tree like this, especially when the owner was practically giving it away? I walked away, came back an hour or so later, and the tree was still there. So I had to step up and buy the damned thing 🙂

This tree is awesome material for many reasons. It is collected so it has character. The movement and branch placement is practically textbook perfect for an informal upright. It is planted in the correct position in a good pot and, perhaps most importantly, the previous owner knew exactly how to maintain Thuja foliage, so it had an abundance of fine twigs which could be used to build foliage pads.

In short, all the hard work was already done by the previous owner over the last 7+ years. I just had to put some wire on it and make it look pretty!

The work involved thinning the foliage and simplifying the branching, wiring everything, focusing the movement of the tree to the right, and shortening the apex. The deadwood was also cleaned and bleached.

Before work

Before work

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Final image

 

The back of the tree is awesome. I would like to try to make this the front one day, but it won't be easy. For now I will enjoy the current front.

The back of the tree is awesome. I would like to try to make this the front one day, but it won’t be easy. For now I will enjoy the current front.


Thuja occidentalis #9

This little thuja was put into a nice Shibakatsu pot last week. This is one of my favorite pots and it suits the tree better than I expected. The major work on this tree is now done – both above and below ground. Now it is just a matter of pruning and pinching to develop the foliage pads. As I refine the foliage, I will slowly scrape the dead bark of the old top jin while trying to maintain the detail of the deadwood. This will be a slow process.

May 2013

May 2013

Summer 2012

Summer 2012

 

Spring 2011 as collected.

Spring 2011 as collected.

 


New Container for Small Larch Forest

The natural stone this small tamarack group was planted on is nice, but far too visually and physically heavy. Today I planted it in a more manageable stoneware crescent by Chuck Iker. See here for an earlier post about this tree.

    Before. Roughly 40 pounds of Canadian granite.

Before. Roughly 40 pounds of Canadian granite.

 

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April 7 2013. Still needs some bud and branch thinning, and a bit of wire. The planting angle was adjusted slightly to emphasize the leftward movement of the group as a whole.


Rocky Mountain Juniper First Styling

This slender Juniperus scorpularum was collected in the Kootenay region of British Columbia in 2009 by a friend. The last 3+ years leading up to today were all spent developing the pre-bonsai. The tree was probably strong enough for work in 2010, but lacked the foliage density. So, after three years of pondering, branch selection, and cutting, I felt today was the day for the first real work.

About a month ago I featured this tree on my blog where it was prepped for todays work. That cutting one month ago paid off as it produced backbudding which gave me lots of new fine branches to work with.

    Today before work. Its amazing how much things can change in a month. Sometimes NOT weeding your trees has its benefits! The plants that overtook this pot are identical to those growing in a large patio planter right next to the juniper. Its as if they knew this juniper was growing in a hanging planter!

Today before work. Its amazing how much things can change in a month. Sometimes NOT weeding your trees has its benefits! The plants that overtook this pot are identical to those growing in a large patio planter right next to the juniper. Its as if they knew this juniper was growing in a hanging planter!

    Petunias and Thai Basil were the most interesting 'weeds' that had established themselves in this pot.

Petunias and Thai Basil were the most interesting ‘weeds’ that had established themselves in this pot.

 

    The Thai Basil ended up in the vegetable crisper - everything else was compost.

The Thai Basil ended up in the vegetable crisper – everything else was compost.

    Front after work. Lots of foliage was removed... probably almost 90%. The tree will probably throw lots of juvenile foliage in response to the heavy cutting. The balance of this tree is unusual. The tree leans heavily to the left, and the key branch thrusts out to the left. Although the overall movement is to the RIGHT! I think?

Front after work. Lots of foliage was removed… probably almost 90%. The tree will probably throw lots of juvenile foliage in response to the heavy cutting. The balance of this tree is unusual. The tree leans heavily to the left, and the key branch thrusts out to the left. Although the overall movement is to the RIGHT! I think?

    Fresh of the mountain in June 2009.

Fresh of the mountain in June 2009.

 


Messing Around With a Small Cedar

This little thuja (~30cm to top of jin) was collected in spring 2011. It’s not exactly a jaw-dropper, but it has some nice movement, natural jins and it reminds me of the big old thuja I see with dead tops.

Preserving the old flaky bark while extending the deadwood was difficult, and some was inevitably lost. Some was actually intentionally removed as it was giving an illusion of inverse taper.

This tree probably won’t be touched for the rest of the year except for some light trimming if the foliage bounces back strongly.


Prep Work on Another Juniper

This is a Rocky Mountain Juniper (Juniperus scorpularum) that was collected in the Kootenay region of the Canadian Rockies back in 2009. Although slender it has nice movement, great deadwood details, and lots of branches.

Aside from maintenance pruning and wiring down some primary branches, this tree has never been worked in detail. Today I cleaned the bark, worked on some deadwood, and cut back quite a bit of growth in preparation for its summer styling. Preparing a tree for styling is almost as important as the styling itself. It has taken three years of cultivation and menial work to produce what is now almost a pre-bonsai. It is a long road from fresh yamadori to having something that is ready for bonsai work.

In terms of styling, this tree still has me scratching my head. The main problem is that the view of the trunk with the best movement and lean does not show the lovely natural shari. I will have to make some compromises when styling this tree… either in deadwood, or trunk movement.

Before work.

After work. My favorite view of the trunk… but the shari is at the back.

Another view showing the shari.

Possible front, although the top half of the tree is leaning strongly to the back.


Cool Thuja

Perhaps my favourite thing about old collected Thuja is the little details.

This tree was brought in to display at a local club meeting, and is more or less the same as it was when growing in the wild. Aside from some casual annual cutting and a bit of wire here and there, the owner has never really tried to make a bonsai of this tree. Instead it is just an old Thuja growing in a pot that is appreciated for its wild beauty. I would probably try to take the tree to a more refined state, although I understand the owner being content with the natural beauty of the tree.

While at first glance a rather and straight and boring looking thing, the incredible details tell another story.

The tree is about 1m tall and is in a Sara Raynor pot. It is a gorgeous pot, but slightly too showy for my taste.

Shari detail.

Strange hollow jin. It almost looks like this was drilled out by a bonsai artist, but it is 100% natural.

Jin.

Shari separating from trunk.


Big Thuja Update

This big Thuja was collected in Fall 2010 and had its first serious root work just over a month ago. It is growing very nicely now, and I moved it into full sun the other day.

As soon as possible this tree will need some major thinning to prevent weakening of the interior growth. Probably 50% of the foliage will need to be thinned. However, before that I decided to cut back some useless branches at the top of the secondary trunk.

This tree actually seems to be two trees/trunks growing together. The main deadwood trunk, and an apparently younger but still interesting trunk behind it. They could work together for a final design, but I think I would prefer the simplicity of the main trunk alone. However, I need to be sure that I can kill off/separate the second trunk without harming the living part of the nicer one. And I am still not 100% convinced as I saw some root fusion when I repotted it last month. The entire deadwood trunk only has one live vein.

Here is the tree as collected in October 2010.


An Eastern Hemlock Story and a Lesson Learned

Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is rarely seen as bonsai because good material is hard to find. They bark up slowly, and grow in shady protected environments where exciting stunted material is rarely found. I’ve only seen two really good pieces of Eastern Hemlock yamadori that impressed me. One is dead now, and I have been trying (unsuccessfully) to buy the other one for awhile. I’ve never seen a mature and refined T. canadensis bonsai.

This Tsuga was one of the first decent trees I collected, back in 2007. It was growing in a dark understory near a trail were it was getting battered and bruised by passing vehicles. It has the beginnings of mature bark which is a sign of some age. Ring counts on a cut branch lead me to think the tree is 40-50 years old.

It had a shallow root system growing in mostly leaf mold, and I took home a mostly intact rootball. It grew happily in the moldy compost for 3 years, sending out 3 extensions every season. The tree seemed very strong.

Then, I had the bright idea to try and get it in a training pot and some coarse bonsai soil. The tree HATED it. Its growth slowed down, and the apex started to die back. It almost looked like a fungal attack, but whatever it was I am convinced that it was a symptom of a more fundamental problem – the soil mix.

The lesson here it to grow T. canadensis in a fine, organic mix. It may be the low pH that they like. Many people know this already (see Nick Lenz Bonsai from the Wild 2nd Ed.) but I was stubborn and in a phase where I though “bonsai soil is better for everything”.

So this spring I raked about 80% of the bonsai grit out of the pot (without removing the tree). The root system looked pathetic. I packed in sifted top soil and hopefully this will help the tree to recover. If it doesn’t help, I am about ready to throw in the towel with this one.

As a side notes, T. canadensis heals over wounds incredibly well. For such a delicate conifer, you would not expect it. This makes them suitable for grafting. The first branch on the right near the top of this tree is a successful one-point graft.


Another Potentilla

This one was repotted back in March and since then produced 2-5″ extensions, which were cut back today.

Also, some significant branches were removed from the apex. A new, lower apex will be built over the coming months.

Before apex pruning…

… and after.


Strange but Interesting Potentilla

Usually when you collect a tree, you have a rough idea of the final image you wish to achieve. Other times, you just see something interesting and decide to “collect first, ask questions later”. This Potentilla fruticosa was one of the latter.

It was collected last spring and hasn’t been touched except for a couple rounds of indiscriminate hacking of long branches.

Shaggy potentilla bark hides much of the details.

After removing the bark, the embracing fused trunks with interesting movement become more clear.

Another view. This little tree has some decent natural shari on both trunks as well.

This one is going to take some more thought. I have some ideas, but nothing solid yet. For now, I will continue to let it grow, hacking it back every couple of weeks.


Larch from Seed

When I told of of my bonsai friends that I was planning on starting some larch from seed, he looked at me like I was dense and asked “Why?”

It is a fair question since we have access to very good wild larch in this part of the world. However, the good larch grow in rocky soil and larch in rocky soil send out just two or three large roots, therefore almost always having a bad nebari. Furthermore, collected larch have a rough and wild appearance. You will never find a collected larch with the features needed to make a “softer” classic upright bonsai. I’m not saying the classic look is better than the wild look. They are just different… and different is good in a bonsai collection.

Newly collected larch. The appearance is coarse and wild, with sharp curves and great bark. The nebari is buried, but trust me – its bad. Note the natural sacrifice branch :)

The question still remains – why larch? Why not something more classic like maple or black pine? There are three answers for that: 1) I see larch as one of the most beautiful species on the planet, 2) Larch can growvery fast in my climate when you want them to, and 3) Larch are bomb-proof and idiot-proof (so long as they are established). I am very lazy and hate dealing with exotic species that require special attention in the winter.

The only drawback I see in American larch is the slow bark development. For that reason, I am also growing some Japanese larch as apparently they bark up faster.

Basically I just want to produce some very nice shohin larch and also have some larch to plant in the ground as longer term “bigger” projects.

The process starts by making seedling-cuttings. The idea is you remove the taproot a few weeks after germination to promote lateral root growth early in the life of the tree.I’ve never done this with larch, but don’t see why it won’t work.

Little seedlings waiting to have their roots removed.

The best time to do this for pines is when the stem has turned reddish-purple, so I’m assuming the same applies to larch. Rooting hormone was applied after this step.

They were planted in a mix of turface fines and perlite. A top layer of something finer like sand would have been better, but I didn’t really have anything available. The seedlings are now in part shade and covered in a dome to increase humidity.


Sweet Little Thuja

Mother nature has done a nice job on this little cedar. It was collected in April and the shallow, dense root ball allowed it to be planted right into a bonsai pot. The shaggy growth hides much of the details, but this tree has excellent movement and taper. Not only that, it has perfectly placed branches with lots of interior growth. If it grows well this year and next, I would expect this tree to be show ready in fall 2013.

This is probably the front of the tree. The Chuck Iker pot was chosen just because it was the right size, but it is actually a pretty decent match to the tree.

One of my favourite features of this tree is the first branch, Shown here from the back, you can see that it has excellent natural movement and character. Like many old Thuja branches, it has been torn down from the trunk, presumably by heavy snow and ice. The relatively fresh looking wood here makes it look like the tear happened only in the last few years. Although this tear happened in nature, it can be replicated artificially as a bonsai technique to redirect an old upward growing branch.


Marco Invernizzi Demo @ Toronto Bonsai Society

Marco has been coming to Toronto pretty regularly for a number of years. This year he did a demo on a less-than-stellar collected Thuja, but as usually he was able to come up with something pretty impressive. His discussion focused on preparing material to become bonsai material, with an emphasis on Thuja.

Although the collected Thuja has some nice features (bark, jins), it is pretty far gone with hardly any interior growth.

Bending the straight jin, with some help.

Demonstrating thinning techniques for the difficult to manage Thuja foliage.

The final tree. Many onlookers questioned keeping the entire length of the 45 degree jin, but Marco proposed that it was the definitive characteristic of the tree, which would make it memorable. You can’t argue with that! Sometimes having a tree that annoys people is worth it’s weight in gold :)


New Rocky Mountain Juniper

I have a friend who lives in the Canadian Rocky Mountains (British Columbia) who occasionally sells me some of his newly collected trees. This is the third RMJ (Juniperus scorpulum) that he has sent me, and the largest. It is a pretty nice tree with a powerful presence and some nice deadwood. The tree was growing in a rock pocket and the rootball is outstanding, and I think this tree has an excellent chance of survival. Sure, the 3,600 km bus ride might have stressed it out a bit, but I still think the chances are good 🙂 The tree still seems to be dormant, so that helps the situation.

Based on my experience, RMJ grow well in the Toronto area. One issue I have encountered with my RMJ is the alarming and persistent Cedar-Apple Rust (Gymnosporangium)… but more on that later. It should be exploding on one of my trees any day now.


Centennial Root from Yesterdays Work

I took a closer look at a piece of root I sawed off of my big Thuja yesterday. Low and behold, it has exactly 100 rings! And just to be a total nerd, I’d like to also point out that the phloem is nicely visible in this picture (the layer of little dots just below the bark).


Repotting my largest Thuja

Its not so much the tree that is huge, but rather the ‘coffin’ that it is planted in. When it is a bonsai, it will be an easy one-person tree… but its still my biggest Thuja (actually, I think its my biggest tree period).

I collected this in the fall of 2010 and did not want to disturb the huge flat root system, so I just built a box around it. It took two people to lift it, but the main issue is that I was stupid enough to build it out of plywood so it was starting to fall apart after a few months.

The purpose of this repotting was simply to put it in a more sturdy box that is about 1/3rd the size, and to wash some of the mucky soil away from the inner rootball.

 

 


Yamadori Rehabilitation Area

Providing good conditions for newly collected material is always tricky when you don’t have a greenhouse. The goal is to protect from wind and intense sun, but the trees still need some sun to recover (especially spruce and larch). I have my trees up against a fence, and a double layer of shade cloth protecting the southern exposure. As trees gain some strength, I will remove one layer. The strongest trees may be moved into direct sun later in the season. I am also misting them as frequently as possible. It has been very windy the last few days, which is not a good thing.

This year, I also gave my newly collected trees a sprinkling of systemic imidacloprid granules. This is mainly to help the larches fight off any borers they may have brought home with them. I suspect that borers contributed to the decimation of last years crop of collected larch.

Something else new I’ve tried this year with my larch is screwing the tree into the wooden box instead of wiring them in. I got this idea from Sandev Bonsai. It can be very tricky to securely wire yamadori into pots. Since larch usually come out of rocky soil with few feeder roots but a number of thick stubs where large roots were cut, it is much easier to drill in a few brass wood screws to lock them into the box. It is imperative that these trees don’t wobble to protect the fragile roots.


Passing Along a Japanese Black Pine at Aichi-en

During my short stay at Aichi-en last December one of the pines I worked on lead to a hierarchical styling session. First I gave the tree my best shot, then apprentice Peter Tea tweaked it, and finally the resident master Junichiro Tanaka offered his improvements. This was an incredible learning experience that started (for me) in the morning and went well into the night in the smoke-filled workshop.

Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii). Probably purchased as inexpensive material from an auction. Mr. Tanaka thought it was collected as a tree with a nice base but a scraggly and bare top that was compressed by a bonsai artist several years ago.

After needle plucking. The contorted nature of the upper trunk is much more clear now. Branch selection had already been completed a couple of years ago. The tree was planted at a good angle, and all it needed was some wire and branch placement. Easy, right? Well, the task became much more challenging when I knew my work would be critiqued by two bonsai professionals!

Wiring this tree was quite the experience. First of all, my wiring skill is still very amateur. Secondly, I was using #10 Japanese copper in very tight spots on this incredibly contorted tree. Thirdly, I often underestimated the required wire diameter for many of these branches. Young, vigorous branches are very hard to bend compared to old branches. As a result, I probably ended up rewiring many parts of this tree 2-3 times!

All wired and ready for further manipulations.

To make the tree more compact, a guy wire was used to further compress the contorted trunkline.

This is as far as I took the tree. There is a small branch under the paper towel that I wanted to remove, but would not unless I got permission. I knew that Mr. Tanaka likes to use every available branch to increase the fullness of the tree. This is important when you are a bonsai professional. (He ended up keeping the branch :P)
 

While this was the best I could do, I was still not happy. I thought the lowest branch was too lanky and needed to be brought forward. Also, the branch on the right needed to be embracing the trunk more. However, I was not confident enough to make these bends as I felt I had already brought those brittle young branches to their limit. In the process of shaping this tree, I had already cracked several branches. So, I called over Peter.

Enter Peter Tea. Here is is fixing some of my shoddy wiring :)

The result of Peter's adjustments. The improvement is quite remarkable. Two things really stand out. (1) For the first branch, he combined what I had separated into two pads into one pad. The resulting pad is much more full with a nice round top. (2) He managed to bring in that branch on the right for a much nicer and more compact image. Peter is MUCH more confident and capable at setting pine branches than I am! I was really blown away with Peter's improvements, and thought that the work was definitely done.

Enter Mr. Tanaka. "Hmmmmm...."

When he picked up the branch cutters, Peter and I were like "seriously?"

Here is the final result, after three people taking their shots at the tree. Mr. Tanaka cut off one of the main branches and opened up the 'window' to the interesting upper portion of the trunk. The resulting branch is not as full, but it has excellent basic structure. While the the branch may looks sparse now, the value of the tree will definitely increase down the road because it has good basic structure in the primary branch.

 

Working on this tree was one of the most challenging and fun bonsai experiences I have had. Reminiscing on this work session really got me thinking… I hope I get the chance to go back to Nagoya some day soon!